In addition to the community's everyday or vernacular language variety labeled "L" or "low" variety , a second, highly codified lect labeled "H" or "high" is used in certain situations such as literature , formal education , or other specific settings, but not used normally for ordinary conversation. The high variety may be an older stage of the same language as in medieval Europe, where Latin remained in formal use even as colloquial speech diverged , an unrelated language, or a distinct yet closely related present-day dialect, for example Hindustani L alongside the standard registers of Hindi H and Urdu H ; or Modern Standard Arabic alongside other varieties of Arabic ; or Chinese , with Mandarin as the official, literary standard and local varieties of Chinese used in everyday communication. Garifuna Karif of Central America is unusual in that it has gender-based diglossia — men and women quite often have different words for the same concepts. Some scholars cite that diglossia appeared when Muslim cities emerged during the early period of Islam. The sociolinguist Charles A.
Demotic - definition of demotic by The Free Dictionary
Egyptian language , extinct language of the Nile valley that constitutes a branch of the Afro-Asiatic language phylum. The Semitic , Cushitic , Chadic , Omotic , and Amazigh Berber language groups constitute the remaining members of the phylum. On the basis of ancient texts, scholars generally divide the history of Egyptian language into five periods: Old Egyptian from before to about bce , Middle Egyptian c. Thus, five literary dialects are differentiated. These language periods refer to the written language only, which often differed greatly from the spoken dialects. Coptic is still in ecclesiastical use along with Arabic among the Arabic-speaking miaphysite Christians of Egypt. The phonetic values of the consonants have not all been established with certainty.
Ancient Egyptian scripts
As life became more complicated, the need for group numbers became apparent, and it was only a small step from the simple system with names only for one and ten to the further naming of other special numbers. In its pure form a simple grouping system is an assignment of special names to the small numbers, the base b , and its powers b 2 , b 3 , and so on, up to a power b k large enough to represent all numbers actually required in use. The intermediate numbers are then formed by addition, each symbol being repeated the required number of times, just as 23 is written XXIII in Roman numerals. The earliest example of this kind of system is the scheme encountered in hieroglyphs , which the Egyptians used for writing on stone. Two later Egyptian systems, the hieratic and demotic, which were used for writing on clay or papyrus, will be considered below; they are not simple grouping systems.
A frame story also known as a frame tale , frame narrative , sandwich narrative or intercalation is a literary technique that serves as a companion piece to a story within a story , where an introductory or main narrative sets the stage either for a more emphasized second narrative or for a set of shorter stories. The frame story leads readers from a first story into one or more other stories within it. The frame story may also be used to inform readers about aspects of the secondary narrative s that may otherwise be hard to understand. This should not be confused with narrative structure or character personality change. Some of the earliest known frame stories are those from ancient Egypt, including one found in the Papyrus Westcar , the Tale of the Shipwrecked Sailor , and The Eloquent Peasant.