Definitions of critical thinking, its elements, and its associated activities fill the educational literature of the past forty years. After a careful review of the mountainous body of literature defining critical thinking and its elements, UofL has chosen to adopt the language of Michael Scriven and Richard Paul as a comprehensive, concise operating definition:. Paul and Scriven go on to suggest that critical thinking is based on: "universal intellectual values that transcend subject matter divisions: clarity, accuracy, precision, consistency, relevance, sound evidence, good reasons, depth, breadth, and fairness. It entails the examination of those structures or elements of thought implicit in all reasoning: purpose, problem, or question-at-issue, assumptions, concepts, empirical grounding; reasoning leading to conclusions, implication and consequences, objections from alternative viewpoints, and frame of reference. Critical thinking - in being responsive to variable subject matter, issues, and purposes - is incorporated in a family of interwoven modes of thinking, among them: scientific thinking, mathematical thinking, historical thinking, anthropological thinking, economic thinking, moral thinking, and philosophical thinking.
Critical thinking: how to help your students become better learners
Slash fiction - Wikipedia
What is Ambiguity? One of the biggest challenges for today's leaders and managers is dealing with increasing ambiguity in their jobs. Wikipedia nicely defines what this ambiguity is:. A common aspect of ambiguity is uncertainty. You are dealing with ambiguous situations when you see that there is more than one solution to a problem, but you aren't sure which one to do. Or, it might be when you come to a conclusion about a situation, but before you can act on it, the situation has already changed.
What is Critical Thinking?
Several years ago some teaching colleagues were talking about the real value of teaching psychology students to think critically. After some heated discussion, the last word was had by a colleague from North Carolina. That observation remains one of my favorites in justifying why teaching critical thinking skills should be an important goal in psychology. However, I believe it captures only a fraction of the real value of teaching students to think critically about behavior. Although there is little agreement about what it means to think critically in psychology, I like the following broad definition: The propensity and skills to engage in activity with reflec tive skepticism focused on deciding what to believe or do.
The ambiguity effect is a cognitive bias that describes how we tend to avoid options that we consider to be ambiguous or to be missing information. We dislike uncertainty and are therefore more inclined to select an option for which the probability of achieving a certain favorable outcome is known. The Decision Lab is a think tank focused on creating positive impact in the public and private sectors by applying behavioral science. In order to better inform your decision, you decide to search online for reviews of the professors who will be teaching your top two picks. Suppose that one of the professors has an average rating, while the other has no ratings yet, since this is their first semester teaching at your school.